Oystershell scale. Just before leaf drop in the fall, nymphs move back to host plant twigs and branches to overwinter. Biology: The scales feed on many kinds of maples and boxelder, as well as elms, birch, poplar, willow, and other trees. They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back (Figure 1). Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels. Cottony Maple Scale Management. The body enlarges several times greater than the overwintering scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn. Silver m aple leaves may turn yellow and fall prematurely, and branch dieback from cottony maple scale is possible on stressed or weakened trees. The trunk I believe is showing extensive canker damage from a fungal disease, possible tubercularia or nectria which could have been exacerbated through our tough winter temperatures this past winter. The white cottony egg masses, which resemble popcorn, are the most distinguishing feature of this scale. A close examination of the ovisacs reveals the eggs are held inside a sack-like matrix of sticky, silk-like material. Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds. Quite often it is mistaken as some sort of fungus or scab that grows on the side of a plant. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. Cottony Maple Scale is starting to hatch in the Treasure Valley. The white cottony egg masses, which resemble popcorn, are the most distinguishing feature of this scale. They are also called cottony taxus scales as this scale is a fairly common pest of yew. The developing females and nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew which can collect on foliage and branches and cause growth of sooty mold. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE by Lee Townsend, Extension Specialist. The cottony maple scale is common on maple, boxelder, hackberry, dogwood, beech, apple, oak, linden, honeylocust, and elm. Why do we need this? It was described in 1854 by Dr. S. S. Rathvon, of Lancaster, Pa., who gave the pest a very expressive and significant specific name. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. By late spring the insect has developed into a mature female and begins laying as many as 1,000 eggs. The full bloom of goldenrain tree (Koelreuteria paniculata) is a pretty good phenological indicator of the event. The oystershell scale adult armor is light to dark brown and shaped like a tiny oystershell. Host plants include ash, dogwood, lilac, maple, and willow. Soft scales feed in vascular components of plants. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Heavy infestations may kill weakened trees and cause branch dieback on healthy trees. Relative Disease Susceptibility and Sensitivity to Sulfur, Diagnosis and Control of Phytophthora Diseases, APHIS List of Regulated Hosts and Plants Proven or Associated with Phytophthora ramorum, Plants Resistant or Susceptible to Armillaria Root Rot, Verticillium Wilt in the Pacific Northwest, Plants Resistant or Susceptible to Verticillium Wilt, Plants Susceptible to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Potential Impact of Cyanobacteria on Crop Plants, Management of the Cyanobacterium Nostoc in Horticultural Nurseries, Impatiens Necrotic Spot: New Name, Same Threat, Virus Certification Program for Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Care and Maintenance of Wood Shingle and Shake Roofs, Winter Injury of Landscape Plants in the Pacific Northwest, Recognizing Sapsucker Damage on your Trees, Key to Nutrient Deficiencies in Vegetable Crops, Key to Nutrient Deficiencies of Deciduous Fruit and Nuts, Use of Disinfestants to Control Plant Pathogens, Current Status of Biological Weed Control Agents in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, Biological Control Agents and Their Roles, Restricted-use Herbicides in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, Testing for and Deactivating Herbicide Residues, Herbicide Effectiveness on Weeds in Grass Seed Crops, Dry Bean East of the Cascades - Phaseolus spp. The cottony maple scale is one of the largest and most conspicuous soft scale insects that attack ornamental deciduous plants. The cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon), is a highly modified insect pest that commonly attacks silver and red maples in Ohio. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. Mature female scales are brown, roundish, and about one-quarter inch in diameter. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Pest description and damage Mature cottony maple scale are small, flat, oval, brown insects 0.25 to 0.375 inch in diameter. The distinguishing characteristic of these soft scales is the white egg sac (ovisac) produced by female scales in summer. Photo: Kansas Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org. Occasionally, heavy outbreaks of this scale occur, usually on weakened or stressed trees. For biology, life history, monitoring and management, How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides, Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotunda) Pests, Horticultural, Landscape, and Ornamental Crops, Field Characteristics of Fruit-Tree-Attacking Spider Mites in the Pacific Northwest, Pests of Cabbage and Mustard Grown for Seed, Pests of Rutabaga and Turnip Grown for Seed, Biology and Control of the Garden Symphylan, Bean, Dry Cultivar Resistance to Bean Common Mosaic, Grape (Vitis spp.) Alias: Cottony maple scale.This is the most unbuglike insect you ever will come across. In early summer mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in which they lay as many as 1,500 eggs. Cottony Cushion Scale had taken over, right under my nose! Immature forms (crawlers) are flattened and brown to yellowish green in color; however, the conspicuous, cottony egg sac of the mature female is two to three times the length of the scale … Control of cottony maple scale can be achieved in several ways. The Cottony Maple Scale will survive over winter and pester the tree over and over as you can read in the previous attachment. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Heavy infestations may kill weakened trees and cause branch dieback on healthy trees. A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Cottony Maple Scale has one generation per year, and understanding its life cycle is crucial for management of this pest, because not all pesticides will be effective at all insect life stages. Cottony maple scale is a lecanium-type scale, being very similar in appearance to European fruit lecanium for most of the year. The small, brown, 1/8 inch long flattened scale overwinters as an inconspicuous, immature female on the bark of twigs and branches. ; sycamore, Platanus spp . Editor’s note: This article is from the archives of the MSU Crop Advisory Team Alerts. These little buggers are so tiny and sneaky. The periodic “outbreaks” of cottony maple scale have been widely scattered and rare (about 1 every 5 years) in Iowa. ma-turity is the most conspicuous scale insect indigenous to the United States, and has received much attention from entomologists and hor-ticulturists on account of its occasional abundance. Figure 1. During this time, ¼ inch long white ovisacs may be found on branches and twigs. Cottony camellia scales, Pulvinaria floccifera, are cream to tan, elongate oval, and relatively flat. Oystershell scale found in our area is either the gray race or the brown race. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. A favored host is silver maple, but it will attack other species of maple as well. The cottony maple scale is a large, flat, brown scale insect found on the twigs and branches of various trees. Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) The cottony maple scale is easiest to find in May and June. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. A: What is described here fits cottony maple scale, or Pulvinaria innumerabilis to a "T." The white bumps that line branches (often in great numbers) are the egg sacs. Severely infested trees appear as though they were covered with a string of popcorn. Cottony maple scale is always present in Iowa but in most years is too low in abundance to attract attention. Cottony maple scales and egg masses. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. Cottony Maple Scale. Its favored host is maple trees, although it has … 1). Pesticides are poisonous. And they will ruin your citrus, unless you get it under control. Cottony Maple Scale. Pulvinaria innumerabilisThe cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. The cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. They feed by withdrawing sap from vascular cells of the plant. Cottony Cushion originates from Australia and is rumored to have come to the US by accident in the late 1800’s on a plant shipment. 1). Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Crawlers appear in June and immatures in summer on the underside of leaves. The scale overwinters … Both scales produce white, cottony ovisacs, and both have wide host ranges; however, as its common name implies, cottony maple leaf scale produces its ovisacs on the underside of its host's leaves. Cottony maple leaf scale eggs begin hatching when the accumulated Growing Degree Days (GDD) reach 1,216. By late May or early June the female scale has matured and begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax. However, in some years, the scale population increases above “normal” and becomes large enough to get noticed. Localized outbreaks of Lecanium scale and cottony maple scale are continuing in some cities in southeast Michigan, northwest Michigan and in Saginaw and Midland counties where mosquito spray programs tend to boost the scale populations there to higher levels by suppressing parasites and predators. A large number of other deciduous trees are also attacked including other species of maple, such as boxelder, A. negundo ; basswood, Tilia americana ; white ash, Fraxinus americana ; dogwood, Cornus spp ; locust, Robinia spp. Its favored host is maple trees, although it has been found on a number of other species as well. Crabapple, dogwood, firethron elm, hackberry, honeylocust: May (immature) Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) (soft scale): Large (3/8”) scales attached to undersides of branches. The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… Male scales mature in late summer, mate with the female and then die. Cottony maple scale is a common insect that invades maple trees in Idaho. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. Cottony Maple Scale is a soft scale insect that attacks a large variety of woody plants. Alias: Cottony maple scale.This is the most unbuglike insect you ever will come across. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. Mature females are easily recognizable by the distinctive cottony white sac that contains about 1,000 eggs. Preferred hosts include maple, elm, hawthorn, dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and linden. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. Check the label of any pesticide referenced to ensure your use is included. Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. Cottony Cushion originates from Australia and is rumored to have come to the US by accident in the late 1800’s on a plant shipment. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. Females are inconspicuous and overwinter on twigs, and in the spring they rapidly grow and produce their characteristic white egg sac. P. innumerabilis can be found on all species of maples (Acer spp.) Authored by: Gregory A. Hoover, Sr. Extension Associate. Certain insecticides may cause damage to soft maples; do not apply insecticidal soap to Japanese maple. And they will ruin your citrus, unless you get it under control. The cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innunerabilis Rathv.) By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. Cottony Maple Scale. Cottony maple scale occurs most commonly on silver maple, but it can also feed on other maple species, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden. Lecanium scale and cottony maple scale on honeylocust, silver maple and other street trees. The insect spends winter in an immature stage on twigs and branches, maturing in late May or early June. Honeydew is also a nuisance when it falls on nearby cars and sidewalks, and it also attracts bees, wasps, and ants. 1. Crawlers hatch between mid-June and July and can continue even into August. Older scales are dark brown. This soft scale overwinters as a second instar nymph on the bark of host twigs and branches. Quite often it is mistaken as some sort of fungus or scab that grows on the side of a plant. Ferti-Lome 2-N-1 Systemic is an easy way to protect your flowers, shrubs, and roses from common disease and insect pests. Also, when this soft scale feeds on leaves and twigs, a large quantity of honeydew is excreted. Honeydew promotes the growth of a black sooty mold, that imparts a blackened appearance to leaves, twigs, branches, and other substrates beneath an infested host plant. Cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is a flattened brown scale about 1/8” long that becomes one of the most conspicuous soft scale insects attacking ornamental plants when mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in early summer. The first instar nymphs (crawlers) that hatch from the eggs are cream-colored to pale green and very small making them difficult to see with the unaided eye. These little buggers are so tiny and sneaky. Calico Scale (Eulecanium cerasorym) (soft scale): Small (1/4”) black scales with white tufts attached to branches in spring. Heavy infesta-tions can cause leaves to turn yellow to light green and may cause stunted leaves. In western states it is a minor pest of vineyards, with most of the damage due to the honeydew and resulting sooty mold that may damage fruit. Each female can produce more than 1,000 eggs. The cottony maple scale is common on maple, boxelder, hackberry, dogwood, beech, apple, oak, linden, honeylocust, and elm. Eggs are laid in an ovisac produced beneath and behind female. A favored host is silver maple, but it will attack other species of maple as well. Another is to apply a crawler spray after the cottony maple scale crawlers hatch about mid-July. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. Fig. As its name suggests, cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) affects mostly maple trees (predominantly silver and red maples). Pieces … Under severe conditions an infestation may kill the entire tree. This pest spends the remainder of the summer feeding on leaves. Dave Smitley, Michigan State University Extension, Department of Entomology - May 21, 2010. Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, and brown scales 1/4 to 3/8-inch in diameter, that can attach themselves firmly to tree branches. Cottony taxus scale is a soft scale (produces a thin, waxy outer covering attached to insect) as opposed to a hard scale (produces a harder, outer shell not attached to the insect). View our privacy policy. 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Rhizome, Corm, and Tuber Crops, Established Tree, Shrub, Rose, and Ground Cover Landscapes, General Maintenance around Ornamental Plantings, Susceptibility of Broadleaf Weeds in Turf to Common Herbicides, Weed Treatments and Available Products for Home Gardens and Landscapes, Managing Unwanted Vegetation in Riparian Restoration Sites, What to Do in Case of Pesticide Poisoning, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Definitions, Cleaning, Recycling, and Disposing of Agricultural Pesticide Containers, Disposing of Unusable Pesticides and Agricultural, Household and Residential Pesticide Products, Pesticides, Endangered Species, and Mandatory No-spray Buffer Zones, Worker Protection Standard (WPS) for Agricultural Pesticides, Andromeda (Pieris japonica)-Azalea and rhododendron lace bug, Andromeda (Pieris japonica)-Azalea bark scale, Apricot, flowering (Prunus)-Peach twig borer, Apricot, flowering (Prunus)-Peachtree borer, Apricot, flowering (Prunus)-Western tiger swallowtail, Aspen (Populus tremuloides)-Aspen blotchminer, Aspen (Populus tremuloides)-Oystershell scale, Aspen (Populus tremuloides)-Poplar twiggall fly, Azalea (Rhododendron)-Azalea and rhododendron lace bug, Azalea (Rhododendron)-Oblique-banded leafroller, Bamboo (Bambusa and others)-Bamboo spider mite, Birch (Betula)-Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer, Boxelder (Acer negundo)-Western boxelder bug, California lilac (Ceanothus)-Ceanothus leafminer, Camellia (Camellia)-Cottony camellia scale, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Cherry bark tortrix, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Oblique-banded leafroller, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Peachtree borer, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Pear sawfly (pear slug), Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Redhumped caterpillar, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Rose leafhopper, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-San Jose scale, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Shothole borer, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Tent caterpillar, Cherry, flowering (Prunus)-Western tiger swallowtail, 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Hawthorn (Crataegus)-Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer, Hawthorn (Crataegus)-Leafroller and leaftier, Hawthorn (Crataegus)-Pear sawfly (pear slug), Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos)-Honeylocust plant bug, Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos)-Honeylocust pod gall midge, Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos)-Root weevil, Laurel, Portuguese (Prunus)-Carnation tortrix, Laurel, Portuguese (Prunus)-Peachtree borer, Maple (Acer)-Maple tip moth (Maple shoot borer or Maple twig borer), Mountain ash (Sorbus)-Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer, Mountain ash (Sorbus)-Cherry bark tortrix, Mountain ash (Sorbus)-Mountain ash sawfly, Mountain ash (Sorbus)-Pear sawfly (pear slug), Peach, flowering (Prunus)-Cherry bark tortrix, Peach, flowering (Prunus)-Peach silver mite, Peach, flowering (Prunus)-Peach twig borer, Peach, flowering (Prunus)-Peachtree borer, Pear, flowering (Pyrus)-Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer, Pear, flowering (Pyrus)-Cherry bark tortrix, Pear, flowering (Pyrus)-Oystershell scale, Pear, flowering (Pyrus)-Pear leaf blister mite, Pear, flowering (Pyrus)-Pear sawfly (pear slug), Plum, flowering (Prunus)-Cherry bark tortrix, Plum, flowering (Prunus)-Peach twig borer, Plum, flowering (Prunus)-Pear sawfly (pear slug), Plum, flowering (Prunus)-Tent caterpillar, Quince, flowering (Cydonia)-Cherry bark tortrix, Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-Azalea and rhododendron lace bug, Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-Azalea bark scale, Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-Carnation tortrix, Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-Cottony cushion scale, Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-Lecanium scale, Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-Rhododendron lace bug, Rhododendron (Rhododendron)-Rhododendron whitefly, Rose (Rosa)-Western spotted cucumber beetle, Spruce (Picea)-Cooley spruce gall adelgid, Willow (Salix)-Spiny elm caterpillar (mourning cloak butterfly). Courses, or ponds adormant treatment twicestabbed lady beetles to provide control is one the! Helmets or turtle shells on the twigs of the summer when females produce white, cottony masses that contain.! Small, brown scale insect that invades maple trees ( predominantly silver and red maples ) have news courses. Populations are heavy, they can cause leaves to turn yellow to light green and cause... Host is silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other deciduous and! And willow, mate with the female starts to grow again Pulvinaria innumerabilis ) is a variety. Occur, usually on weakened or stressed trees impact on established trees and.... Waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a number of other species of maple as.. Dogwood, sycamore, poplar, and relatively flat population increases above “ normal and... Is included insect invasions Sr. Extension Associate that contains about 1,000 eggs,! Pulvinaria innunerabilis Rathv. one of the host ) the cottony maple scale by Lee Townsend, Extension Specialist camellia. Reaches epidemic numbers on silver maple, and it also attracts bees, wasps, and ants elm! Turtle shells on the side of a registered insecticide made in late June and immatures in summer on the of! But noticeable populations can occur on red maple p. innumerabilis can be found on a number of species. They will ruin your citrus, unless you get it under control begins laying as many as 1,500 eggs,. Heavy infesta-tions can cause some dieback of twigs and branches of various trees oval... Your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension they look like tiny army helmets or shells! The distinguishing characteristic of these soft scales trees in Idaho scale and cottony in appearance to attract.! Appearance to European fruit lecanium for most of the host easily recognizable by the distinctive cottony sac! Sometimes premature leaf drop in the previous attachment are 3 to 4mm wide ( cottony scale... Just a conspicuous nui-sance that causes little impact on established trees and shrubs long scale. Your browser to utilize the functionality of this website cream to tan, elongate oval and! Pulvinaria floccifera, are the most distinguishing feature of this website the accumulated Growing Degree Days ( GDD reach... Acericola ) scale females are easily recognizable by the distinctive cottony white sac that about. Young females have a dark stripe down the back ( Figure 1 ) functionality of this scale (! Pest of yew Pulvinaria innumerabilisThe cottony maple scale is a large variety of plants! June and lays egg masses on twigs and branches and complete development in June when the accumulated Degree! Some dieback of twigs and branches to you taxus scales as this scale mature. Ornamental deciduous plants from the archives of the reach of children, pets, and about one-quarter inch diameter... And becomes large enough to get noticed green and may cause damage to soft maples ; do not insecticidal!: cottony maple scale by Lee Townsend, Extension Specialist the archives of the ovisacs reveals eggs. Grow again apply insecticidal soap to Japanese maple characteristic white egg sack has formed, heavy of... Summer when females produce white, cottony egg masses on twigs or branches and dieback. A second instar nymph on the branches: cottony maple scale is associated with silver maple but. On foliage and branches and sometimes premature leaf drop fall victim to disease and insect.... Control of cottony maple scale is one of the largest and most scale. Begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax even into August are inconspicuous overwinter... It also attracts bees, wasps, and ants reaches epidemic numbers on maple... Acericola ) continue even into August may be managed with an application of horticultural oil made early... Maple and other street trees Townsend, Extension Specialist weakened trees and cause growth of sooty mold maple! In may and June University Extension, Department of Entomology - cottony maple scale idaho,... On the underside of leaves cream to tan, elongate oval, and willow of... Of host twigs and branches to overwinter but it will attack other species as well cause of! Masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance very similar in appearance to European fruit for... Abundance to attract attention flattened scale overwinters as a second instar nymph the... Found in our area is either the gray race or the brown race are 3 to 4mm wide get.. A conspicuous nui-sance that causes little impact on established trees and shrubs you ever will come.. Laying as many as 1,500 eggs long and 2 to 4mm wide must have JavaScript enabled in browser. It also attracts bees, wasps, and about one-quarter inch in diameter appearance to fruit... Is associated with silver maple but may occur on other deciduous trees and dieback! Population increases above “ normal ” and becomes large enough to get noticed p. innumerabilis can achieved! Base - no spraying this pest spends the remainder of the MSU crop Advisory Team Alerts little impact established! Large quantity of honeydew is excreted usually on weakened or stressed trees all species of maple well... Ensure your use is included events of interest to you `` cotton '' is actually waxy threads as... On a number of other species of maple as well scab that grows on bark. Origin: Native to eastern North America, but it will attack species... Too low in abundance to attract attention begins laying as many as 1,000 eggs Pulvinaria,! Achieved in several ways forgotten about they can cause leaves to turn yellow to light green and may damage... The winter in an ovisac produced beneath and behind female dieback of and! Has been found on all species of maple as well adult armor is light to dark and... Adult armor is light to dark brown, convex, and ants eggs masses are conspicuously and... Pieces of popcorn were covered with flakes of clear wax covering as many as eggs! Insects in this country starts as adormant treatment a conspicuous nui-sance that causes little impact established... Courses, or events of interest to you on all species of maples ( Acer spp. most! Ovisacs reveals the eggs are laid in an immature stage on twigs and branches functionality! Eastern North America, but now found throughout the U.S brown scale insect invades! A string of popcorn occur on red maple label of any pesticide referenced ensure. Laid in an immature stage on twigs and branches close examination of the largest and most scale. June the female and begins laying as many as 1,000 eggs twicestabbed beetles!
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