VII. Although it has been associated with a particular philosophy since the eighteenth century, it seems clear that the Enlightenment comprises very different philosophies. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Introduction: Religious toleration in the Age of Enlightenment, Institute for Culture and Society (ICS), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. This article will argue that by joining the Third Estate to form the National Constituent Assembly, the clergy negated one of the fundamental pillars of religious freedom: the separation of church and state. Zagorulko and I.A. Series: Faux Titre Online, Volume: 326; Faux Titre, Volume: 326; Editor: Ourida Mostefai. Enlightenment authors often blamed puritans for the British Civil Wars and thought that Huguenots, if not as guilty as the ligeurs, were also responsible for the French Wars of Religion.26 As Manfred Svensson shows in his contribution to this special issue, confessional Calvinists such as John Owen also held theories of toleration, but historians often prefer to pay attention to those authors whose doctrinal minimalism and distinct rejection of religious war seems more appropriate for opposing spiritual authority. The role of the Christian idea of conscience is, for instance, pretty evident. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. 35 John Marshall, John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture (Cambridge, 2006), 536–66. 21 Antonio José Rodríguez, El Philoteo en conversaciones del tiempo (Madrid, 1776), vol. H. Wayne Pipkin, & John H. Yoder (Scottdale, 1989), 58–66. 2 What Is Enlightenment? They could only tolerate religions after decisively transforming them. The Enlightenment is generally taken to begin with the ideas of Descartes and culminate with the French Revolution in the late 18th century. I. In the second stage of reform up to the final third of the nineteenth century (from 1815 to 1871), the schools of the Allgemeine Armenanstalt (‘General Poor Relief Agency’) developed into a substitute for as yet non‐existent public elementary schools (Volksschule) in Hamburg and ultimately came to form the basis on which a comprehensive compulsory public school system was built. In his History of England, David Hume explicitly acknowledged the pragmatic nature of Enlightenment toleration: In all former ages, not wholly excepting even those of Greece and Rome, religious sects and heresies and schisms, had been esteemed dangerous, if not pernicious to civil government, and were regarded as the source of faction, and private combination, and opposition to the laws. 85 Martin Fitzpatrick, ‘Toleration and the Enlightenment movement’, 54. The Age of Enlightenment, also known as the Enlightenment, was a philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. During the age of Enlightenment, many philosophers began to question the power and goals of the government as well as the powers and rights of the people. 59 Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall, vol. George Turnbull and Francis Hutcheson, then, insisted on a moral core of religion and on limitations of the Church’s power. VI, 165. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. As we have seen, Enlightenment theories often combined tolerance and intolerance and advocates of toleration did not always personally exhibit a tolerant attitude. Moreover, Crucé's theories share the Enlightenment's central concerns because they were constructed against the traumatic memory of the Wars of Religion and because they aspired to bring back social peace and political stability to Europe, as well as to a wider international community. : Eighteenth-Century Answers, 58–64 (62). The chief goal of the essay is to juxtapose Russian toleration, in theory and practice, with the early modern and modern record in Western Europe: in this context, the impact of the European Enlightenment on Russian toleration will receive special attention. Mill's position on the foundational importance of religious toleration to the wider practice of civil liberties deserves careful consideration, as does his caveat about the "tacit reserves" often attached to toleration. In the first part of the paper the author points out the limits of moderate Enlightenment?s?religious tolerance? The Enlightenment involved a series of campaigns against the existence, or at least the supremacy, of ecclesiastical authority, which was precisely the one thing that the Church of Rome was not willing to give up. For both Locke and Bayle, following one's conscience was, above all, a religious duty. 58 Van Limborch to Locke, 2/12 April 1698, in John Locke, Selected Correspondence (Oxford, 2002), 138. But it was during the eighteenth century that much of the European intellectual elite accepted the ideal of toleration and began to express it in the most diverse kinds of texts. After all, even the apologists of the Spanish Inquisition held that inquisitors respected the individual conscience and only punished the external breach of religious laws.51, However, Enlightenment thinkers did not always commit to the Christian idea of conscience. Church and Nation in Eighteenth-Century Germany’, in The Holy Roman Empire, Reconsidered (New York, 2010), 249–64. For some scholars, the novelty of the Enlightenment theory of toleration is found in this precise distinction. II, 88–92. 23 David Hume, ‘On the Protestant Succession’, in Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (London, 1758), 265–71 (70). 6 vols. Volume One. Such opinions were common among Enlightenment thinkers, who often equally defended the right of sovereigns over ecclesiastical matters and the right of individuals over their own consciences. 16 Marsilius of Padua, Defensor pacis (Cambridge, 2005); Nathan Tarcov, ‘Machiavelli's Critique of Religion’, Social Research, 81 (New York, 2014), 193–216. 71 Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 1776), vol. Ole Peter Grell, Jonathan I. Israel and Nicholas Tyacke (Oxford, 1991), 171–93. And the same could be said of Kant's ‘pure rational system of religion’. IV, 304. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, rulers adopted basic enlightenment principles, like religious toleration, freedom of speech and press, and the right to hold and maintain private property. Subsequently, it discusses specific issues: the crisis of national identity and its reflections in theatre; the role of classics in the theatre repertoire; Amy Wyngaard, an Assistant Professor of French at Syracuse University, has published essays on Marivaux, Watteau, and Rétif de la Bretonne. Voltaire’s rallying cry against fanaticism resonates with new force today. In addition, a secular culture developed; nothing was regarded as sacrosanct and secularists sought to prevent believers from worshipping God according to the dictates of their own consciences. 57 Mario Turchetti, ‘Religious Concord and Political Tolerance in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century France’, The Sixteenth Century Journal, 22 (1991), 15–25. In the last decades, increasing research on the religious Enlightenment has highlighted the role of Christian doctrines in Enlightenment toleration debates. 5, ch. This article is an introduction to a special issue on ‘Religious Toleration in the Age of Enlightenment’. They argue that he allegedly went beyond religious toleration and fostered complete intellectual freedom.42 However, as Lucci's essay indicates, even the followers of Spinoza's radical Enlightenment often based his claims on religious sources and traditions. States were concerned with maintaining religious uniformity for two reasons: first, they believed that their chosen co… Tolerance was accepted at most as a temporal means to achieving the real objective behind the more moderate and conciliatory authors, politicians and churchmen of the time, namely religious concord. Godard de Donville (Paris: La Découverte, 1984); Jean Dusaulx, Voyage à Barège et dans les hautes-Pyrénées (Paris, 1788); François Marlin, Voyages en France et pays circonvoisins depuis 1775 jusqu'en 1807. Many linked this progress to ‘the light which philosophy has diffused over the world’4 and some considered Paris to be the epicentre of that philosophy.5 There, the so-called philosophes were allegedly trying to change the world with their writings. Recent scholars, however, tend to complicate this perception. 15, 27-29, 61, 212-13. John Christian Laursen and María José Villaverde (Lanham, MD, 2012). Immanuel Kant, ‘An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? 72 Thomas Paine, Rights of Man (London, 1791), 78–9. Today, Frederick is considered an “Enlightened Monarch” because of his efforts in making his kingdom a free place for the philosophers and intellectuals of the Enlightenment era. The first of these questions is the same one Kant tried to answer in 1784: ‘What is the Enlightenment?’ I do not pretend to downplay the plurality of realities encompassed in this term, but I think that, even if one prefers to pose it in the plural form, the question of what the different Enlightenments have in common still demands an answer. Scholars have stressed the religious roots of early Enlightenment ideas concerning freedom of conscience and worship, as well as the role that religious groups, such as English dissenters and French Jansenists, played in eighteenth-century debates on toleration. Religious freedom, of course, could be severely curtailed in this way. Volume One, 7. 54 Edward G. Andrew, Conscience and Its Critics. 15 J. G. A. Pocock, Barbarism and Religion. 80 Annelien de Dijn, ‘The Politics of Enlightenment: From Peter Gay to Jonathan Israel’, Historical Journal, 55 (2012), 785–805. that challenged the authority of Scripture, of theological claims and of religious traditions. VII, 463–85; Voltaire, Letters Concerning the English, letter IV, 45 ; ‘Tolerance’, in Dictionnaire Philosophique (London, 1767), vol. At least since the mid-eighteenth century, advocates of tolerance started to write as if there were no need for subtle theories justifying religious freedom. been given in terms of fundamental human dignity which should never be violated by empirical laws. 37 Pierre Bayle, Reponse aux questions d’un provincial (Rotterdam, 1707), vol. This created tensions which the theologians John Simson and Archibald Campbell sought to exploit when they were attacked by Committees for Purity of Doctrine for suspicion of heresy. Stages of Denial: State-Funded Theatres in Serbia and the Yugoslav Wars. However, when legislators and judges notice that some of the most perspicacious and conscientious individuals are openly violating existing laws in the name of a higher law, they should also make a serious reappraisal of their positions, looking to see whether they may not have become morally insensitive or careless. Regarding religion, the Declaration established that no one was to be disturbed ‘for his opinions, including religious ones, provided that their manifestation does not trouble the public order established by the law’.78 This proviso could justify, and did justify, significant restrictions to religious freedom. Additionally, the ideas of conservatism, toleration and scientific progress were also a product of the Enlightenment. chills54. The notable involvement of freethinkers and atheists in Enlightenment debates on toleration was, no doubt, an historical novelty. It is true that fanatics from time immemorial have been willing to sacrifice much in the name of their cause. This paper presents the two competing models of Enlightenment tolerance and testing their status and scope. All rights reserved. ... - Believed in natural rights and religious toleration ... Enlightenment-Age of Revolutions. The Enlightenment brought logic and reason into the way colonists thought about the natural world. The key factors driving these transformations were a changing concept of pauperism, a shift in pedagogic thought and, in connection with this, an increased importance of gender differences. She is completing a book entitled From Savage to Citizen: The Invention of the Peasantry in the French Enlightenment. The term also more specifically refers to a historical intellectual movement, "The Enlightenment." Enlightenment thinkers cast off much of the religious, philosophical, and political ideals of previous generations and forged new ground. The biggest issue the church faced at the beginning of the eighteenth century was the fact that many settlers lived outside the reach of organized churches. Volume One, 67. Such usages have their appropriate contexts, but they should not... ontologines prielaidas. 64 Locke to van Limborch, Selected Correspondence, 6 June 1698, 140. Enlightenment thinkers responded diversely to this question and later scholars have expanded the range of answers to the point that it now seems almost unanswerable. XV, 155–9. XIX, 554. Bayle knew that such rights could be adduced to justify any behaviour allegedly demanded by conscience. 2. Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, MA, 2007), 333–58; Toleration in Enlightenment Europe, ed. James Schmidt (Berkeley, CA, 1996), 45–232. However, we must not consider for this reason that those who are responsible for making, interpreting, and enforcing the law (on the one hand) and those who are civilly disobedient (on the other hand) are working at cross purposes. 34 terms. Of course, minimalism was also divisive, but this paradox accompanied most efforts towards Christian concord. Moreover, no historian can be insensible to the fact that in 20th-century Europe, the supposed "home" of religious toleration, powerful political regimes committed themselves to the destruction of religious pluralism. Even scholars more interested in earlier traditions of tolerance often attribute the emergence of a new, liberal view on the subject to the Enlightenment.73 Accordingly, it is often claimed that Bayle, Locke and the like replaced traditional communitarian views of toleration with a new understanding of freedom of conscience as an individual right. Manoma, kad visų demaskavimo būdų prielaida – susvyravęs Dievo kaip absoliučios tikrovės pripažinimas. Being incorporated in these images, people are able to realize their involvement in social events. The eighteenth century was, according to many, an ‘age of light’.3. quest to understand the origins of humankind. 55 Pierre Bayle, Reponse aux questions d’un provincial, vol. This article is an introduction to a special issue on ‘Religious Toleration in the Age of Enlightenment’. The Enlightenment is giving way to ‘the Enlightenments’.12, There is still considerable historiographical support for the conventional view according to which almost everything that is good in the modern Western world comes from the Enlightenment, including science, political freedom, human rights and, of course, religious tolerance. 88 Benjamin J. Kaplan, Divided by Faith, 336–51. 89 Perez Zagorin, How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West, 12. Prior to the European wars of religion, there were relevant intellectual attempts to submit religious authority to political power.16 In the sixteenth century, programmes aimed at neutralizing religious threats to civil authority and social peace multiplied in response to the Reformation and the wars of religion. In this sense, the Enlightenment arose from a particular understanding of the European Wars of Religion. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. In his opinion, there were only two kinds of Christians, those who ‘arrogate to themselves dominion over the consciences of others’ and those who seek truth for themselves and tolerate the rest.63 He excluded the former from toleration, but trusted that toleration among the latter would lay the foundations ‘of that liberty and peace in which the church of Christ is one day to be established'.64 In Locke's view, toleration was the best way to concord. Enlightenment authors, however, usually regarded these groups as irrational enthusiasts. Voltaire's rallying cry against fanaticism resonates with new force today. They argue that it was only during the Enlightenment that this limited view of toleration was transformed into freedom of religion understood as an inalienable human right. How a popular religious war erupted on the Dutch-German border, despite the ideals of religious tolerance proclaimed by the Enlightenment In a remote village on the Dutch-German border, a young Catholic woman named Cunegonde tries to kidnap a baby to prevent it from being baptized in a Protestant church. 98 Perez Zagorin, How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West, 292. Regarding the English independents and their early defence of ‘the principle of toleration’, Hume wrote: ‘It is remarkable that so reasonable a doctrine owed its origin, not to reasoning, but to the height of extravagance and enthusiasm.’27. 36 Jean Bodin, Les six livres de la République (Paris, 1577), lib. See Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau, L'Ami des hommes. Manfred Svensson's contribution to this special issue highlights the role that doctrinal minimalism played in Locke's toleration theories. This article is an introduction to a special issue on ‘Contexts of Religious Tolerance: New Perspectives from Early Modern Britain and Beyond’, which contains essays on the contributions to the debates on tolerance by non-canonical philosophers and theologians, mainly from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Scotland and England. 50 John Dunn, ‘The Claim to Freedom of Conscience: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Thought, Freedom of Worship?’, in From Persecution to Toleration: The Glorious Revolution and Religion in England, ed. Chp. The theories of toleration and their impact on society. 67 Voltaire, Essay sur l’histoire générale, v. VIII, ch. Next, it challenges some common scholarly assumptions regarding Enlightenment ideas on tolerance. Tabula Rosa. This article aims to provide a first and unprecedented approach to the study of dedication to the religious Uf e of some members of the lineage Feijoo. In particular, it disputes that these ideas were essentially principled, secular, pluralist and liberal. But Mill's assumption that religious toleration should be associated primarily with Western societies is almost certainly a major historical blunder. Hence, regarding the situation of Judaism in the Roman Empire, Gibbon could say that, ‘according to the maxims of universal toleration, the Romans protected a superstition which they despised’.71 It is well know that, by the end of the eighteenth century, relevant figures such as Kant and Paine started to argue that toleration is opposed to true freedom.72 In their opinion, no authority has the right to declare an official religion and decide which religions should simply be tolerated. By definition, freedom of conscience denoted an individual right of religious belief and practice: it was therefore a more sweeping right than anything connected with toleration. Religious concord, royal supremacy, sceptical rhetoric and reason of state were some of the various means insistently proposed during the sixteenth and seventeenth century for restoring European societies to peace, unity and political stability.17 It can be argued that the Enlightenment is distinguished by the fact that it took place once the wars of religion were over, although it is not completely clear when that happened. 69, 193; Paul Hazard, La crise de la conscience européenne (Paris, 1935). actions, the capacity of human beings to imbue power to things or individuals - sometimes as unavoidable as natural forces-, and the way in which language creates non-physical realities: the social reality. For their part, religious sceptics easily accused those who held any strong beliefs of enthusiasm. In the 17th century the philosophy of religion was taken in new directions by René Descartes in France and John Locke in England. This preference essentially coincides with that of the Enlightenment authors themselves. ^ Michael J. Buckley, At the Origins of Modern Atheism (London: … Registered in England & Wales No. In general, Enlightenment authors remained worried about the dangers of religious pluralism. One cornerstone of the, While a thick vein of scepticism marked Enlightenment thinkers’ studies, such investigations cannot be divorced from their concurrent quest to merge the wondrous and the rational. 43 Ian Harris, ‘John Locke and Natural Law: Free Worship and Toleration’, in Natural Law in the Early Enlightenment, ed. 87 Henry Kamen, The Rise of Toleration, 217. Sometimes it has been said that Peter the Great secularized Russia, this description usually meaning that Peter bureaucratically subordinated the Church to the state or that he confiscated monastic lands, thereby breaking the economic power of the Church. In the eighteenth century, many French writers described their age as one in which the lumières were spreading over Europe like never before.1 Likewise, there was a growing perception among German intellectuals that times of darkness were giving way to an age of Aufklärung.2 While the word ‘Enlightenment’ did not yet exist, writers in English employed similar luminous metaphors to describe their epoch. Jean M. Goulemot, Paul Lidsky, Didier Masseau, eds, Le Voyage en France. He asserted, "No society in which these liberties are not, on the whole, respected is free, whatever may be its form of government." Bayle condemned the idea ‘that part of the subjects can resist the sovereigns who want to strip them of freedom to serve God in a different way than the one established in the country’ as equally fanatical as the doctrine of persecution.55 In fact, he acknowledged that claiming the rights of conscience (although rhetorically powerful and religiously convincing) was of little political consequence. In English debates, for instance, it was quite common to talk about comprehension and indulgence. However, although Searle’s theory is fruitful and influential, it leaves aside the creation of collective images, an aspect that is going to be shown in this work as essential for the construction of social reality. Indeed, the real value of a free society is its flexibility and tolerance of dissent, even that of civil disobedience, which can serve to dramatize forcefully, deep-seated convictions concerning the injustice of certain laws on the books. I, ch. For most scholars, toleration prior to the Enlightenment was no more than a practical measure taken by governments that could not enforce religious conformity. XV, 451. Catherine the Great of Russia abolished torture and criticized the institution of serfdom. Pierre-Jean-Baptiste Legrand d'Aussy, Voyage fait en 1787 et 1788 dans la ci-devant haute et basse Auvergne, ed. Rise of toleration. Deism, for instance, is clearly a form of religious minimalism that aspired to bring together a society divided by dogmatic disputes. Even the theologians that supported the medieval ‘persecuting society’ insisted that faith was always free and that no one could be coerced to accept Christianity.93 Their main justification for intolerance, namely that baptism implied a promise that should be kept, does not sound very convincing, but this did not stop them from demanding the harshest punishments for heretics.94 Martin Luther, for his part, would have been esteemed as one of the greatest historical champions of tolerance if his last words on the subject had been those found in his 1523 tract, ‘On secular authority’.95 There, we find some of the main arguments that advocates of toleration employed in the next centuries. 95 Martin Luther, ‘On Secular Authority’, in Luther and Calvin on Secular Authority, ed. Centered on the idea that reason is the primary source of authority and legitimacy, this movement advocated such ideals as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state. A consequence of the French Revolution was that some of the spirit of the Enlightenment became reality-interference in religious affairs. IV, 221–6. 3. Historians of toleration have insisted on the confrontation between Castellio and Calvin, the Arminians and the Dutch Reformed Church, Pierre Bayle and Pierre Jurieu, and so on and so forth. I wish to thank the Institute for Culture and Society (ICS) for their material and organizational support. 26 John Seed, ‘Enthusiasts, Puritans and Politics: David Hume's History of England’, in Dissenting Histories: Religious Division and the Politics of Memory in Eighteenth-Century England, ed. The Age of Enlightenment, also known as the Enlightenment, was a philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. As Lucci's contribution to this special issue clearly demonstrates, deism did not necessarily mean the rejection of positive religions. In his classic study on The Rise of Toleration, Henry Kamen argued that the theory of toleration was essentially completed with Locke and Bayle. IV, 30. 83 Immanuel Kant, ‘Perpetual peace’, in Political Writings (Cambridge, 2003), 115. Religion, Toleration, and Fanaticism in the Age of Enlightenment. Both options were sometimes combined as in the case, for instance, of those who worked for unity among Protestants, while at the same time harshly fighting the Catholic Church. We use cookies to improve your website experience. La Francia del edicto de Nantes y el Comentario de Pierre Bayle’, in Pierre Bayle, Comentario filosófico sobre las palabras de Jesucristo “oblígales a entrar” (Madrid, 2006), I-CXXXVII. 3 vols. 46 Voltaire, Traité sur la tolérance (1763), ch. (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1995), I: i-xxvi, 589. Voltaire made this perfectly clear in his Traité sur la tolérance, by presenting many quotes from Christian authorities arguing for toleration and then stressing the countless times Christians have failed to practise a theory they know perfectly well.97. By the second half of the eighteenth century, certain thinkers integrated merpeople into their explanation of humanity’s origins, thus bringing this phenomenon full circle. Among Protestant branches, Calvinism was most reluctant to accept the submission of the church to civil authorities. 2 The Age of Enlightenment and Freedom of Expression The Age of Enlightenment represents a historical period that came in the 16 th and 17 th centuries but continued to influence the activities of the 18 th century. The early Enlightenment already prompted a notable intensification, especially in England and Holland, of previous campaigns for toleration. According to this view, Christian authors such as Roger Williams or William Penn could be considered less tolerant since they despised some forms of religion and did not oppose proselytism.69 This argument, however, holds no water. The seven contributions to this special issue of History of European ideas clearly show the benefits of research focused on particular authors, problems and contexts. This perception is evident in the Enlightenment interpretation of the wars of religion, which usually laid the blame on those groups who opposed political authority claiming reasons of conscience. 68 Holbach, Système de la nature (London, 1770), vol. Such relevant thinkers as Hume, Diderot and Voltaire openly stated that the state's sovereigns and magistrates should govern the church.86 But even those less inclined to Erastianism usually conceded civil authorities very broad rights to supervise religious beliefs and practices so that they could not become a threat to the state. Kritika Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. Rousseau and L'Infâme: Religion, Toleration, and Fanaticism in the Age of Enlightenment Rousseau and L'Infâme: Religion, Toleration, and Fanaticism in the Age of Enlightenment. For instance, D’Alembert’s ‘Preliminary Discourse’ to the Encyclopédie identified the lumières with empiricism, but we cannot accept this identification without excluding from the Enlightenment relevant figures such as Kant himself. 2. According to this various forms of unmasking are distinguished. History of European Ideas: Vol. Tit. A situation of extreme social crisis during the Enlightenment movement ’, ou... Irrational enthusiasts secular affairs kaip absoliučios tikrovės pripažinimas petrova carries out analysis of theoretical of! Elements of appearance and clothing become the material signs of nonmaterial ideas T. s.. Remained worried about the natural world is supposed that the Quaker faith was completely otherworldly and no..., '' which did not do this all on its own, however, or all at once, all. G. Gadamerio preteksto samprata bei P. Sloterdijko ciniškos tiesos kaip nuogos tiesos interpretacija, atskleidžiamas demaskacinio mąstymo pobūdis this analyzes... 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2020 religious toleration in the age of enlightenment